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Coordinates: 34°18′31″N90°51′15″W / 34.30861°N 90.85417°WCoordinates: 34°18′31″N90°51′15″W / 34.30861°N 90.85417°W
CountryUnited States
StateArkansas
CountyPhillips
Area
• Total0.51 sq mi (1.32 km2)
• Land0.51 sq mi (1.32 km2)
• Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation167 ft (51 m)
Population
(2010)
• Total636
• Estimate 499
• Density974.61/sq mi (376.65/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central (CST))
• Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
72333
Area code(s)870
FIPS code05-20950
GNIS feature ID0048832

Elaine (pronounced locally with the accent on the first syllable) is a very small town in Phillips County, Arkansas, United States, in the Arkansas Delta region of the Mississippi River. The population was 636 at the 2010 census.

The Elaine Massacre was by far the deadliest racial confrontation in Arkansas history and possibly the bloodiest racial conflict in the history of the United States. While its deepest roots lay in the state’s commitment to white supremacy, the events in Elaine (Phillips County) stemmed from tense race relations and growing concerns about labor unions. A shooting incident that occurred at a.

Elaine is a Korean-American singer-songwriter mostly known for her gorgeous OSTs. She has songs for ‘Mr. Sunshine’, ‘Vagabond’, ‘WWW’ and ‘I’m not a robot’. Elaine as a girls' name is pronounced ee-LAYNE. It is of Greek origin, and the meaning of Elaine is 'sun ray'. French form of Helen. In the King Arthur myths, Elaine is a character who fell in love with Lancelot. The name first appeared in the 15th-century 'Morte D'Arthur' of Thomas Malory, while Tennyson's poetry 'Idylls of the King' promoted. See full list on nanatsu-no-taizai.fandom.com. Official video for 'Risky' by Elaine. Listen & Download 'Elements' out now: Music - https://Elaine.lnk.to/Elements/amazo.

The city is best known as the location of the Elaine massacre of September 30–October 1, 1919, in which an estimated 237 black people were killed in the rural county by rampaging white mobs.[3][4] Five whites died in the events. This was one of the worst incidents of racial and labor violence in American history. Black sharecroppers were attempting to organize a farmers' union, which the planters resisted.[5][6]

History[edit]

Phillips County was developed in the antebellum years for cotton plantations, which relied on the labor of enslaved African Americans. Their work produced the wealth of the major large planters. Cotton continued to be the major commodity crop into the 20th century in this area but, after the war, blacks often had to work as sharecroppers or tenant farmers. By the turn of the century, Arkansas and other southern states had disenfranchised most blacks, excluding them from the political system, and imposed Jim Crow laws.

Black sharecroppers began to try to organize a farmers' union after World War I. They were seeking better payment and accounting from white landowners of the area cotton plantations. Whites resisted any change and often tried to break up their meetings.

On September 30, 1919, two white men, including a local deputy, tried to break up a meeting of black sharecroppers who were trying to organize a farmers' union. After a white deputy was killed in a confrontation with guards at the meeting, word spread to town and around the area.[6] Hundreds of whites from Phillips and neighboring areas rushed to suppress the blacks, and started attacking blacks at large. GovernorCharles Hillman Brough requested federal troops to stop what was called the Elaine massacre. White mobs spread throughout the county, killing an estimated 237 blacks before most of the violence was suppressed after October 1.[3] Five whites also died in the incident. The governor accompanied the troops to the scene; their use had been approved by U.S. PresidentWoodrow Wilson. Sharecroppers generally remained at a disadvantage in dealing with white landowners.

The county continues to rely on agriculture, but mechanization reduced the need for farm labor. Many African Americans left this area in the Great Migration of the early 20th century. In the 21st century, most farms are industrial scale. Some seasonal Hispanic migrant workers have been hired in this area since the late 20th century.

At 6:15 PM, April 26, 2011, a tornado – part of the 2011 Super Outbreak – hit the Elaine area.[7] The tornado was rated EF0, with estimated wind speeds of 75 miles per hour (121 km/h; 65 kn).[7] The tornado's path of destruction was 200 yards (180 m) wide and the tornado traveled a path of 21.5 miles (34.6 km) along Highway 61 and across the Mississippi state line, ending near Lula, Mississippi.[7] Most of the tornado's damage was concentrated in Friars Point and Coahoma, Mississippi.[7]

Geography[edit]

Elaine is located at 34°18′31″N90°51′15″W / 34.30861°N 90.85417°W (34.308595, −90.854201).[8]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2), all land.

Elaine

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1920377
193051135.5%
194063424.1%
195074417.4%
196089820.7%
19701,21034.7%
1980991−18.1%
1990846−14.6%
20008652.2%
2010636−26.5%
2019 (est.)499[2]−21.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]

At the 2000 census there were 865 people in 330 households, including 222 families, in the city. The population density was 1,725.8 people per square mile (668.0/km2). There were 356 housing units at an average density of 710.3 per square mile (274.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 39.08% White, 58.15% Black or African American, 0.92% from other races, and 1.85% from two or more races. 6.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Agriculture includes rice production, which uses seasonal migrant laborers from Mexico and Latin America in the town, nearby Lake View, and the Helena area.[10]Of the 330 households 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.2% were married couples living together, 30.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.7% were non-families. 31.2% of households were one person and 18.5% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.31.

The age distribution was 31.8% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 19.5% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 16.8% 65 or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.5 males.

The median household income was $19,479 and the median family income was $22,813. Males had a median income of $22,386 versus $18,056 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,640. About 33.5% of families and 41.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 59.1% of those under age 18 and 26.5% of those age 65 or over.

Education[edit]

The Marvell–Elaine School District serves the community. Marvell Primary School and Marvell High School in Marvell serve Elaine.[11]

Previously the Elaine School District served the community. On July 1, 2006, the Elaine district merged into the Marvell district.[12] When the district existed, it operated Lucilia Wood Elementary School and Elaine High School.[13][14]

Notable people[edit]

  • Levon Helm, musician
  • John Hughey, country musician
  • Barry Williamson, Texas politician, was reared in Elaine.
  • Jimmy McCracklin blues musician, was born in Elaine

References[edit]

Elaine seven deadly sins
  1. ^'2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files'. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  2. ^ ab'Population and Housing Unit Estimates'. United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  3. ^ abElaine Massacre, Arkansas Encyclopedia of History and Culture; accessed April 3, 2008.
  4. ^Arkansas Assembly 2017
  5. ^'US Map of 73 years of lynching', New York Times, 10 February 2015
  6. ^ abKrug, Teresa (18 August 2019). 'A rural town confronts its buried history of mass killings of black Americans'. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  7. ^ abcdNWS Memphis Office Report
  8. ^'US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990'. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  9. ^'Census of Population and Housing'. Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  10. ^'U.S. Census website'. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  11. ^'Schools.' Marvell-Elaine School District. Retrieved on March 2, 2011.
  12. ^'Consolidation/Annexations of LEA's (1983–2010)Archived September 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.' Arkansas Department of Education. Retrieved on March 2, 2011.
  13. ^'Lucilia Wood Elementary School.' Information Network of Arkansas (State of Arkansas). Retrieved on March 2, 2011. '100 College St. Elaine, AR 72333'
  14. ^'Elaine high School.' Information Network of Arkansas (State of Arkansas). Retrieved on March 2, 2011. '100 College St. Elaine, AR 72333'
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elaine,_Arkansas&oldid=1036294746'
Birth nameNdivhuwo Elaine Mukheli
Born2 April 1999 (age 22)
Pretoria, South Africa
OriginLimpopo, South Africa
Genres
Occupation(s)
Instruments
  • Vocals
Years active2019–present
LabelsColumbia

Ndivhuwo Elaine Mukheli (born 2 April 1999), known mononymously as Elaine, is a South African R&B singer and songwriter from Pretoria. While studying law at the University of the Witwatersrand, she self-released her debut EP Elements in September 2019.[1] The EP reached No. 1 on both the national iTunes and Apple Music album charts, making her the first independent female artist to do so.[2][3]Elements was certified Platinum by RISA a year after its initial release and was nominated for Best R&B/Soul Album at the 26th South African Music Awards. Elaine was subsequently signed to Columbia Records in December 2020. [1]

Early life[edit]

1999–2018: early years[edit]

I remember the owner of the pre-school came to me and gave me a solo – this solo was ‘Silent Night’ and girl, that’s when my career took off. This was my time to shine, and I think from the moment I sang that solo, I knew that this is what I want to do for the rest of my life.

—Elaine on her childhood introduction to singing[4]

Ndivhuwo Elaine Mukheli was born in Pretoria on 2 April 1999. She started singing at age six and participated in the school choir and various talent competitions while growing up.[4] In 2014 she received a gold medal at the 8th World Choir Games in Riga, Latvia.[5][6] While attending high school, Mukheli began writing her own music.[7] She began studying law at University of the Witwatersrand in approximately 2018,[1] and stated in November 2019 that she was part of the university's Golden Key Honour Society.[7]

Career[edit]

2019–present: Elements[edit]

Elaine uploaded her debut single, 'Slip Away' onto SoundCloud in February 2019, before officially self-releasing it in April 2019. Her follow-up single, 'I Just Wanna Know' was released in August 2019. Elaine was the first South African artist to be part of Spotify's Radar artist program.[8][9] She released her debut EP, Elements, on 29 September 2019.[10] The 7-track EP was produced by Clxrity alongside Elizee from South African hip-hop duo Elizee and Malachi and was described by OkayAfrica as 'a mellow blend of trap-soul and R&B with incisive explorations of adolescent love.'[11] The EP was successful on streaming charts, helping Elaine clock one million accumulative streams within two weeks of its initial release.[12] She was deemed as Apple Music's New Artist Spotlight after Elements reached No. 1 on the album chart in South Africa.[13] At one point in February 2020, all seven songs from Elements simultaneously placed in the top 10 of the national Apple Music R&B/Soul songs chart.[14] The EP, spawned the single 'You're The One', which also topped both iTunes and Apple Music single charts.[15] The single earned Elaine both her radio debut and first number one on the Metro FM Top 40,[16] as well as several weeks atop both the 947 Top 40,[3] and KFM Top 40.[17] Her debut music video for 'You're The One' was released in early April 2020 and gained approximately 100 thousand views within 24 hours of its initial release.[18][19] As of late April 2020, Elaine continues to 'dominate' South African music charts.[20]Elements was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry of South Africa (RISA) in July 2020.[21] The EP was also nominated for Best R&B/Soul Album at the 26th South African Music Awards.[22] Elaine was signed to Columbia Records in August 2020.[23][24][25]

On 12 May 2021, she released a single 'Right Now'.[26]

Artistry[edit]

Elaine's musical style regarding genre has been described as trap-soul (a blend of trap and soul music),[1][4][11]alternative R&B,[27][20]contemporary R&B,[27][1] and neo-soul.[20] She has cited R&B singers such as Lauryn Hill and Beyoncé as her biggest inspirations.[28] Elaine's musical style has been compared to that of Tsakani Mhinga and H.E.R.,[29] as well as Jhené Aiko and Summer Walker.[30]

Discography[edit]

Extended plays[edit]

TitleDetailsCertifications
Elements
  • Released: 29 September 2019
  • Label: Self-released
  • Format: Digital download, streaming
  • RISA: Platinum[21]

Singles[edit]

TitleYearCertification[21]Album
'Slip Away'2019Non-album single
'I Just Wanna Know'
  • RiSA : Platinum
Elements EP
'Say It'
  • RiSA : 3×Platinum
'When We’re Alone'
  • RiSA : Platinum
'I/You'
  • RISA : 2× Platinum
'Changes'
  • RiSA : 3× Platinum
'You’re The One'2020
  • RISA : 3× Platinum
'Risky'
  • RiSA : 3× Platinum
'Right Now'[31]2021Non-album single

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Awards and nominations[edit]

AwardYearRecipient(s) and nominee(s)CategoryResultRef.
South African Music Awards2020ElementsR&B/Soul Album of the YearNominated[22]
BET Awards2021HerselfBest New International ActNominated[32][33][34]
MTV Africa Music Awards2021HerselfBest Breakthrough ActPending[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdeHlalethwa, Zaza (22 November 2019). 'Elaine is in her element'. Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  2. ^Nxumalo, Lee (8 April 2020). 'Elaine is South Africa's new R&B It Girl'. Red Bull. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  3. ^ abMbhele, Zweli (8 May 2020). ''Every moment we have is a big moment. I'm grateful for their support.' – Elaine'. 947. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  4. ^ abcKabwe, Suwi (7 January 2020). 'Exclusive: R&B Sensation Elaine Delves Deep Into Her Musical Journey'. Between 10and5. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  5. ^Ntsinde, Mandisa (15 January 2020). '5 Things You May Not Know About Soulstress, Elaine'. Zkhiphani. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  6. ^'Apple Music's New Artist Spotlight, Elaine'. Le'Afrinique. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  7. ^ abMathebula, Kwanele (22 November 2019). '5 minutes with singer Elaine'. Bona Magazine. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  8. ^Eggertsen, Chris (9 March 2020). 'Spotify Launches Global Emerging Artist Program RADAR With Alaina Castillo in the U.S'. Billboard. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  9. ^Shumba, Ano (13 March 2020). 'Spotify launches programme for emerging artists'. Music in Africa. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  10. ^'Elaine Delievers [sic] Pure RnB & Soul On New 'Elements' Project [Listen]'. Hype. 30 September 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  11. ^ abKaunda, Mayuyuka (13 December 2019). 'South African Women Dropped the Best Debuts of 2019'. OkayAfrica. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  12. ^Kumona, Molife (11 March 2020). '5 Reasons we are obsessed with Elaine'. GQ. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  13. ^'RnB sensation Elaine takes on charts and Apple Music's New Artist Spotlight'. City Buzz. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  14. ^'South Africa Apple Music Top 100 R&B/Soul Songs: Week 8'. top-charts.com. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  15. ^'You're the One by Elaine – Chart Performance'. Top-Charts.com. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  16. ^Manjo, Theo (2 May 2020). 'Elaine Goes On Beats Radio 1 With Nadeska'. Slikour On Life. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  17. ^'KFM Top40SA'. Top40SA.co.za. 23 May 2021. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  18. ^Sekhu, Michael (6 April 2020). 'Elaine Drops Video for – You're The One'. People. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  19. ^Mhkabela, Sabelo (6 April 2020). 'Elaine Finally Releases a Music Video for her Hit 'You're the One''. OkayAfrica. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  20. ^ abcMakhubo, Sabelo (28 April 2020). 'Elaine's Debut EP, Elements Continues Its Dominance Of The Music Charts'. JustNje. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  21. ^ abc'South Africa certifications'. Recording Industry of South Africa. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  22. ^ abCiolfi, Tecla (16 July 2020). 'Here's your first look at The SAMAs full list of nominees for this year's SAMA26 #ForThaKultcha'. Texx and the City. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  23. ^Kekana, Chrizelda (20 August 2020). 'SA singer Elaine joins the same label as Beyoncé and Adele'. The Times. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  24. ^'South Africans celebrate as singer Elaine goes global with Columbia Records'. Eyewitness News. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  25. ^'Artists – Columbia Records'. Columbia Records. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  26. ^Shabangu, Nobantu (13 May 2021). 'Elaine's New Single Is Simply Stellar'. OkayAfrica.
  27. ^ abDonelson, Marcy. 'Elaine – Biography by Marcy Donelson'. AllMusic. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  28. ^'HYPE Magazine Interviews Elaine'. Hype. 2 October 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  29. ^Mkhabela, Gugulethu (13 March 2020). 'Elaine Mukheli, one SA talent you need to hear right now'. Glamour. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  30. ^Makinde, Tami (10 March 2020). 'For the Girls: Elaine is the South African singer you want to get familiar with'. The Native. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  31. ^'Right Now'. Spotify. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  32. ^'SA singer Elaine nominated for a 2021 BET Award'. News 24. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  33. ^'Tems and Elaine join Burna Boy, Wizkid and Diamond Platnumz at the 2021 BET Awards'. The NATIVE. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  34. ^'South African Songstress Elaine Bags BET Nomination'. Vibesnmore. 29 June 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  35. ^'Here Are the 2021 MTV Africa Music Awards Nominees'. OkayAfrica. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2021.

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