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The Black Jewels is a series of dark fantasy novels and short stories written by American writer Anne Bishop. The first three books were originally published individually and then together as a trilogy in a single omnibus collection. The series takes place in a world where those born with dark power/magic rule in a deeply matriarchal society.
Tons of links to complete free ebooks still covered by copyright. Novels, mystery, romance, thriller, history, spiritual and more. An eclectic layout - to break up the typical one genre format. Join our community of free eBook lovers! Choose from our hand picked collection of the best public domain books to be found in the English language from the last five hundred years. Register now for free access to our ebooks, all available as EPUB and Kindle MOBI books. All ebooks are provided without DRM protection and can be read. Download free books in PDF & EPUB format. More than 50.000 books to download in your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or mobile. And daughter to Davenport in the Iowa Territory, traveling down the Ohio and up the Mississippi. There he prospered as an Indian trader, and inside a year he bought a house in the town of LeClaire. He also filed a claim on a site two miles west of LeClaire. He used his house as his head. The Prayer of Jabez. The prayer of Jabez is an unusual prayer because Jabez asks for a blessing for himself. The act of blessing is usually associated with somebody (or God himself) blessing somebody else. (For example, Moses blessing the people of Israel in Deuteronomy 33:1 or Jesus blessing the children in Mark 10:13-16.).
The Black Jewels Trilogy
Winner of the William L. Crawford Memorial Fantasy Award, 2000.
- Omnibus published in December 2003.
Daughter of the Blood
- Published in March 1998
- MM PaperbackISBN0451456718 & ISBN978-0451456717
Heir to the Shadows
- Published in April 1999
- MM PaperbackISBN9780451456724
Queen of the Darkness
- Published in January 2000
- MM PaperbackISBN9780451456731
The Black Jewels Novels
Stand-alone novels published after the award-winning trilogy.
The Invisible Ring
- Prequel, set prior to the events in Daughter of the Blood
- Published October 2000
- Jared,a red jeweled pleasure slave in Terrielle, is sold at auction to 'The Gray Lady' a Gray Jeweled Queen. As one of the few Queens left that could challenge Dorothea SaDiablo, they are hunted on their journey back to Dena Nehele.
- Includes the short story By the Time the Witchblood Blooms
- Published in March 2008
- MM PaperbackISBN9780451462220
The Shadow Queen
- Related to events and characters from The Invisible Ring
- Published in March 2009
- MM PaperbackISBN9780451462862
The Queen's Bargain
- Set after the events in Twilight's Dawn
- Published in March 2020
The Queen's Weapons
- Sequel to The Queen's Bargain
- Published in March 2021
The Black Jewels Short Stories
Anne Bishop has published two complete Black Jewels short story anthologies. Two additional short stories can be found within other publications.
Dreams Made Flesh
- Contains the following four short stories:
- Weaver of Dreams
- The Prince of Ebon Rih
- Kaeleer's Heart
- Published in January 2005
- MM PaperbackISBN9780451460707
- Contains the following four short stories:
- Winsol Gifts
- Shades of Honor
- The High Lord's Daughter
- Published in March 2011 (collection of short stories)
- MM PaperbackISBN9780451464057
By the Time the Witchblood Blooms
- Originally published in Treachery and Treason (Anthology) in March 2000
- MM PaperbackISBN978-0451457783
- Second publishing in 2008 in Tangled Webs
- Published in Powers of Detection: Tales of Mystery and Fantasy in October 2004
- MM PaperbackISBN978-0441014644
Jewels and Blood Hierarchy/Castes
There are two main, interconnected hierarchical systems among the Blood.
The first is the Jewel system. In a society with a high tolerance for violence, Jewel ranking gives an immediate sense of innate power. The darker a person's Jewel, the more dangerous they are. They have greater Craft (magic) abilities and higher metabolisms, as well as significant political advantages over lighter Jeweled Blood. The Jewels themselves act as reservoirs of power. The Blood are able to use some Craft without tapping into their Jewels but the vast majority of their abilities require them. Using too much Craft and draining a reservoir can potentially shatter a Jewel and permanently render a person unable to access that power. Adult members of the Blood typically have two full sets of Jewels, a Birthright and the one they 'wear'. While Jewels are typically worn out in the open, the Blood are able to sense Jewel rank to a certain extent (multiple instances show that this ability is easy to confuse, especially if the bearer wears their Birthright instead of their actual Jewel).
Jewels fall into thirteen ranks with darker colors being stronger. They are:
*Opal is the dividing line between lighter and darker Jewels because it can be either.
Members of the Blood undergo two ceremonies to determine their innate strength. The darker the Jewel, the stronger the person is. During the Birthright Ceremony, which occurs in childhood, they may or may not walk away with a Jewel. It is unheard of to receive anything darker than Red as Birthright. The only known exception to this being Janelle Angelline.
A second ceremony is done at the age of majority. Called the Offering to the Darkness, it lasts from sunset to sunrise. When making the Offering to the Darkness, a person can descend a maximum of three ranks from his/her Birthright Jewel. Example: Birthright White could descend to Rose. If a darker Jewel is received, both sets of Jewels are kept after the ceremony. The new Jewel is used as the day to day Jewel and becomes the person's rank, while the Birthright is kept as an additional reservoir.
It is considered especially fortuitous for a person to receive an uncut Jewel (i.e., one never used before). Uncut Jewels are large enough to make a ring, a pendant, and shards, all of which are kept and used. In the case of a cut Jewel, the recipient will receive the same amount of Jewel.
It is possible for a person who did not receive a Jewel during the birthright ceremony to receive a White, Yellow, or Tiger-Eye Jewel during their offering to darkness ceremony, since they can 'descend' a maximum of three power ranks at this time.
Rank can only decrease when a person has been 'broken'. When a person is broken, one or more of their Inner Webs are pierced and they are permanently separated from the power in their Jewels. This can be done either during a Virgin Night when a woman is especially vulnerable or through a blast of power. The former is far more common than the latter. Breaking a virgin is a widespread act used for profit and enjoyment and is part of the recurring theme of sexual violence in the series. Broken individuals are still able to use some Craft. If the woman conceives a child from the rape they still have the ability through craft to abort the child, but will be rendered infertile after they do. They do not lose their caste.
The other layer of innate hierarchy among the Blood is the Blood Hierarchy/Castes.
landen- non-Blood of any race
Blood male- a general term for all males of the Blood; also refers to any Blood male who doesn't wear Jewels
Warlord- a Jeweled male equal in status to a witch
Prince- a Jeweled male equal in status to a Priestess or a Healer; also used as a form of address for Warlord Princes
Warlord Prince- a dangerous, extremely aggressive Jeweled male; in status, slightly lower than a Queen
landen- non-Blood of any race
Blood female- a general term for all females of the Blood; mostly refers to any Blood female who doesn't wear Jewels
witch- a Blood female who wears Jewels but isn't one of the other hierarchical levels; also refers to any Jeweled female
Healer- a witch who heals physical wounds and illnesses; equal in status to a Priestess and a Prince
Priestess- a witch who cares for altars, Sanctuaries, and Dark Altars; witnesses handfasts and marriages; performs offering; equal in status to a Healer and a Prince
Black Widow- a witch who heals the mind; weaves the tangled webs of dreams and visions; is trained in illusions and poisons; in extremely rare cases, may be male
Queen- a witch who rules the Blood; is considered to be the land's heart and the Blood's moral center; as such, she is the focal point of their society
The basic unit of Blood society and government is a Queen and her Court. To create a Court, she must be at the age of majority and have twelve males who agree to be in her First Circle. While Queens are the rarest females, they are not uncommon and most Territories have a Territory Queen who rules over Province Queens, who in turn rule over District Queens. Warlords and Warlord Princes are occasionally appointed to act as rulers of small areas under the auspices of a Queen. It is highly unorthodox for a witch who is not a Queen to rule.
The Blood possess some ability to sense and mask their psychic scent (the combination of their Jewel ranking, caste, and personal 'scent'). It seems that darker Jewels are better able to both sense and mask psychic scents.
Jewel rank is considered less important than overall caste. A low-ranking Queen in term of Jewels outranks a high-ranking witch and a low-ranking Warlord Prince outranks a Prince. Within caste, the higher ranking the Jewel, the higher ranking the person. A lighter Jeweled Queen is unlikely to become a Territory Queen if there are darker Jeweled Queens available. Within caste, males automatically defer to the darkest Jeweled male. In addition, the Blood are a matriarchal society. Males are supposed to defer to females. Because of physical and Jewel discrepancies in strength, Protocol is used to keep a precarious balance.
Daughter of the Blood
Seven hundred years ago, a Black Widow witch saw an ancient prophecy come to life in her web of dreams and visions. Now the Dark Realm readies itself for the arrival of its Queen, a Witch who will wield more power than even the High Lord of Hell himself. But she is still young, still open to influence - and corruption.
Whoever controls the Queen controls the darkness. Three men—sworn enemies—know this. And they know the power that hides behind the blue eyes of an innocent young girl. And so begins a ruthless game of politics and intrigue, magic and betrayal, where the weapons are hate and love—and the prize could be terrible beyond imagining.
Jaenelle is destined to rule the Blood, if she can reach adulthood. Saetan, High Lord of Hell and most powerful of the Blood males, becomes Jaenelle's surrogate father and teacher. He cannot protect her outside Hell, where he rules. She refuses to leave Terreille, risking herself to protect or heal other victims of violence. Can Daemon, Saetan's estranged son, keep her safe from the machinations of the evil High Priestess?
Heir to the Shadows
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Jaenelle's adoptive father, Saetan, and her foster-family of demons shelter her. To restore her memory and emotional balance, they move to Kaeleer, where Jaenelle gathers a circle of young Queens. She also heals Lucivar, Daemon's half-brother, who offers a brother's love and a warrior's fealty. As she recovers strength and memory, Jaenelle resolves to restore Daemon and cleanse Terreille. She claims her place as Queen of Ebon Askavi and secures Kaeleer from the growing threat of Tereille and the corruption that exists there.
Queen of the Darkness
Jaenelle Angelline now reigns as Queen-protector of the Shadow Realm. No longer will the corrupt Blood slaughter her people and defile her lands. But where one chapter ends, a final, unseen battle remains to be written, and Jaenelle must unleash the terrible power that is Witch to destroy her enemies once and for all.
Even so, she cannot stand alone. Somewhere, long lost in madness, is Daemon, her promised Consort. Only his unyielding love can complete her Court and secure her reign. Yet, even together, their strength may not be enough to hold back the most malevolent of forces.
The Invisible Ring
A powerful warlord named Jared, who has been a pleasure slave for nine years, goes up for sale at a slave auction. He expects to end up working in the salt mines, but instead is purchased by a mysterious, powerful and feared witch, the Gray Lady.
Dorothea SaDiablo, High Priestess of Hayll, is a member of a long-lived race who is working to rule or control the entirety of the world of Terreille. The Gray Lady has been fighting her and so Dorothea decides to have her assassinated as she travels to her home territory from the slave auction.
The Gray Lady receives a mysterious warning about the attempt to kill her so she buys a wagon and horses and sets off cross-country with her new slaves, hoping to elude her killers. During the trip, Jared discovers that they are traveling not with the Grey Lady but rather her granddaughter, Lady Arabella Ardelia. He also discovers that he is in love with her.
The chase leads them to Jared's boyhood home where he discovers that Dorothea's forces have already killed all of the witches in the area and most of his family, including his parents. With the help of the few who remain, they defeat Dorothea's army and escape into the Gray Lady's territory. Jared is encouraged by Daemon Sadi to follow his heart and to help Lady Ardelia in her fight against Dorothea to preserve as much as possible that is good for the eventual coming of The prophesied Witch who will have the power to defeat Dorothea and cleanse the blood of the taint she has spread.
Dreams Made Flesh
Dreams Made Flesh consists of four stories.
The first tells the story of how the Arachnids became the first race to possess Craft after the Dragons.
The second story tells of how Lucivar Yaslana meets, courts, and marries his wife. It takes place after the events in Heir to the Shadows and before Queen of the Darkness.
The third story tells some of the backstory of Saetan Daemon SaDiablo, and how his then-wife Hekatah tried to manipulate him, including sacrificing his newborn son. It concludes with the terrible retribution he exacted.
The fourth story tells of Daemon Sadi and Jaenelle and how they began to rebuild their lives after the conclusion of Queen of the Darkness.
- Jaenelle Angelline is the main character, (though the story is never told from her point of view) the young witch destined to become Queen of the Darkness, aka 'Witch'. (Witch is Dreams Made Flesh—the incarnation of dreams heard and then woven into tangled webs by the Weaver of Dreams, or the Queen Weaver, a small spider found on Arachnia) She has 12 uncut Jewels, one of every color, for her Birthright, along with the 13 uncut Black Jewels. After her offering, that she offered only 6 of her black jewels, she came away with the Ebony Jewels. She lost most of her power after the war, but was granted another new Jewel: Twilight's Dawn. With Twilight's Dawn, she is able to do the simple craft that she was not able to do before like call in her own shoes.
- Daemon Sadi (SaDiablo) is the son of Saetan and the broken Black Widow, Tersa, and fiercely loves Jaenelle/Witch to whom he proclaims being destined to be Witch's lover. He, like his father and brother, is a Warlord Prince with Birthright Red Jewels. He later descended to Black Jewels after his offering to the Darkness. He and his father are the only known Black Widow males in history. His father became one through craft, while Daemon is the only natural Black Widow male in the history of the blood. He is also known as 'the Sadist' for enjoyment and use of pain in the bedroom during his years as a pleasure slave in the courts of queens tainted by Dorothea and Dorothea herself. He is the strongest male in the history of the Blood.
- Saetan Daemon SaDiablo is the High Lord of Hell, High Priest of the Hourglass, and Warlord Prince of Dhemlan. He is Jaenelle's spiritual and adopted father. He received an uncut Birthright Red Jewel, and received an uncut Black Jewel after his Offering to the Darkness. He is the second strongest Male in all the realms, after his son, Daemon.
- Lucivar Yaslana (SaDiablo) is the son of Saetan and the Eyrien Luthvian. Lucivar, a half-Eyrien, has batlike wings, and has a strong brotherly love for Jaenelle. His Jewels are the birthright Red, then later descended to Ebon Gray. Like his brother, Daemon, he was enslaved as an adolescent and forced to serve in the courts of Dorothea and her followers. His explosive temper sent him to the salt mines of Pruul. He is the third strongest male in the Realms, after Sadi and Saetan.
- Surreal SaDiablo is a prostitute and assassin. Her Jewels are birthright Green, and later descended to Gray. She is the daughter of Titian, the result of her mother's rape by Kartane SaDiablo, making Surreal a Hayllian and Dea al Mon half-breed.
The Kindred are animals who have been granted their own Jewels and are fully Blood. Jaenelle reestablishes the connection between Kindred and human Blood, which was broken in the war between Terreille and Kaeleer started by Hekatah.
Most humans discount Kindred's power and intelligence as myth, and need personal experience with one to accept them.
- Dorothea SaDiablo is the incestuous High Priestess of Hayll. She is a member of the Hourglass Black Widow coven. Birthright jewel Blood Opal/later descended to Red.
- Kartane SaDiablo is the son of Dorothea SaDiablo. He was also once a close friend of Daemon Sadi. He is also Surreal's father, having raped Titian. He was also one of Briarwood's 'uncles.' Birthright Blood Opal/descended to Red.
- Hekatah is the demon dead, self-proclaimed High Priestess of Hell, and the former wife of Saetan SaDiablo. She instigated the wars between Kaeleer and Terreille. Birthright jewel Blood Opal/descended to Red. Hayllian born, and died in the great war between Terreille and Kaeleer. She is also the mother of Mephis, Peyton and another son which she killed in order to manipulate Saetan SaDiablo. Hekatah also gave birth to Andulvar Yaslana's child, Ravenar. She is behind many of Dorothea's plots in an ultimate attempt to make herself ruler of all the Realms.
- Robert Benedict claims to be the father of Jaenelle Angeline. He participates as an 'uncle' of the hospital known as Briarwood, helping to fund it. There Blood males subject underage Blood females to perverse tortures, including rape. He is also an influential member of the male council in Chaillot, the goals of which undermine the power of the matriarchal system and thus his mother-in-law, the Queen of Chaillot. Birthright unknown descended to Yellow.
- Jarvis Jenkell is a newly discovered Blood male who attempts, in the novel Tangled Webs, to disclose his nature through his writing. When his semi-autobiographical 'Landry Langston' novels are mocked by the Blood, he and three Black Widows, including an unwitting Tersa, create a haunted house intended to punish and ultimately kill members of the SaDiablo family and Blood who made a mockery of his book.
The Dark Court
- Warlord Prince Daemon Sadi (Consort) - Birthright Red descended to Black, natural black widow- Warlord Prince of Dhemlan Kaeleer (succeeded Saetan SaDiablo)
- Warlord Prince Lucivar Yaslana (First Escort) - Birthright Red descended to Ebon-Gray - Warlord Prince of Ebon Rih
- Warlord Prince Saetan SaDiablo (Steward) - Birthright Red descended to Black - Warlord Prince of Dhemlan Kaeleer, High Lord of Hell and the High Priest of the Hourglass, is the patriarch of the SaDiablo family
- Warlord Prince Andulvar Yaslana (Master of the Guard) - Birthright Red descended to Ebon-Gray - Warlord Prince of Askavi Kaeleer
- Warlord Prince Chaosti - Birthright Green descended to Gray - Warlord Prince of Dea al Mon
- KINDRED: Warlord Prince Kaelas - Birthright Opal descended to Red
- Warlord Prince Mephis - Birthright Red descended to Gray, demon dead
- Warlord Prothvar Yaslana- Birthright Opal descended to Red, demon dead
- Warlord Prince Aaron - Birthright Green descended to Red - Warlord Prince of Tajrana, Nharkhava
- Warlord Khardeen - Birthright Purple Dusk descended to Sapphire - Warlord of Maghre, Scelt
- Warlord Prince Sceron - Birthright Opal descended to Red - Warlord Prince of Centauran
- Warlord Jonah - Birthright Summer Sky descended to Green
- Warlord Morton - Birthright Rose descended to Opal - First Escort of Glacia
- Elan - Birthright Opal descended to Red
- KINDRED: Warlord Ladvarian - Birthright Opal descended to Red
- KINDRED: Warlord Prince Mistral - Birthright Rose descended to Opal - Warlord Prince of Sceval
- KINDRED: Prince Smoke - Birthright Tiger's Eye descended to Purple Dusk
- KINDRED: Warlord Sundancer - Birthright unknown descended to Gray
- Black Widow Healer Queen Karla - Birthright Sapphire descended to Gray - Territory Queen of Glacia
- KINDRED: Black Widow Queen Moonshadow - Birthright Rose descended to Opal - Territory Queen of Sceval
- Black Widow Healer Queen Gabrielle - Birthright Opal descended to Red - Territory Queen of Dea al Mon
- Queen Morghann - Birthright Purple Dusk descended to Green - Territory Queen of Scelt
- Queen Kalush - Birthright unknown descended to unknown - Territory Queen of Nharkhava
- Queen Grezande - Birthright unknown descended to unknown
- Queen Sabrina - Birthright unknown descended to Green - Territory Queen of Dharo
- Queen Zylona - Birthright unknown descended to unknown
- Queen Katrine - Birthright unknown descended to unknown
- Queen Astar - Birthright unknown descended to unknown - Territory Queen of Centauran
- Warlord Prince Rainier - Birthright Rose descended to Opal. Dance instructor to Jaenelle
- Warlord Prince Jared Blaed Grayhaven - Birthright Purple Dusk descended to Purple Dusk
- Warlord Prince Ranon - Birthright Rose descended to Opal
Ranon and Jared Blaed Grayhaven had the potential for Second Circle, but were not in the Second Circle or same Realm.
- Witch and former assassin Surreal SaDiablo - Birthright Green descended to Gray ('cousin' to Daemon Sadi)- Half-Hayllian, half-Dea al Mon
- Hearth witch Marian Yaslana - Birthright Rose descended to Purple Dusk - Eighth Circle, wife of Lucivar Yaslana - Eyrien
- Prince Butler - Birthright Purple Dusk descended to Green - unofficial member of the Dark Court
- Witch Wilhelmina Benedict - Birthright Purple Dusk descended to Sapphire - Jaenelle Angelline's elder sister - Terreille
- ^Anne Bishop Official Webpage: The Black Jewels
- ^TV Tropes: Literature - Black Jewels
- ^Treachery & Treason LCCN Permalink
- ^ abBishop, Anne (2007). Queen of the Darkness. ISBN978-0451461711.
- ^Bishop, Anne (August 2007). Heir to the Shadows. ISBN978-0451461513.
- ^Bishop, Anne (2006). Dreams Made Flesh. ISBN0451460707.
Shalador's Lady by Anne Bishop
Henry[a] (died 28 August 886) was the leading military commander of the last years of the Carolingian Empire. He was commander-in-chief under Kings Louis the Younger and Charles the Fat. His early career was mostly restricted to East Francia, his homeland, but after Charles inherited West Francia in 884 he was increasingly active there. During his time, raids by the Vikings (mainly Danes) peaked in Francia. The sources describe at least eight separate campaigns waged by Henry against the Vikings, most of them successful.
Henry is described in the sources as a Saxon, Frank or Thuringian. His title is given variously as count (Latin comes), margrave (marchensis) or duke (dux). The territory he governed is described variously in the sources as Francia, Neustria or Austrasia, perhaps indicating that his military command covered most of the north of the empire from the Breton March in the west to Frisia and Saxony in the east.
Henry's family has been called the Popponids (German Popponen) because the name Poppo was particularly common among them. It is speculated that he was a son of Count Poppo of Grapfeld, or perhaps of Poppo's son, Christian I of Grapfeld, and his wife, Heilwig. His brother was Poppo, Duke of Thuringia. The Popponids were probably related to the Hattonids, and Henry may have 'inherited' his positions in Saxony (from Banzleib) and in Austrasia (from Banzleib's brother Adalbert).
Henry's wife was possibly Ingeltrude, the daughter of Eberhard of Friuli: a memorial book of the abbey of Reichenau names a Henry (Heimirich) and an Ingeltrude (Engildrud) side by side.
Henry had three sons, all of whom died during the so-called Babenberg feud with the rival Conradine family:
- Adalbert (c. 854 – 9 September 906), captured and executed
- Adalhard (died 903), captured and executed
- Henry (died 902), killed in battle
Widukind of Corvey calls Adalbert a 'close relative through his sister' of King Henry I of Germany, which led Emil Kimpen to conclude that Henry I's mother, Hathui (Hedwig, Hadewig), was Adalbert's sister and Duke Henry's daughter. This suggestion has been widely accepted, not least because it explains the adoption of the name Henry by Henry I's family, the Liudolfings. In this case, it is through Duke Henry that the name ultimately entered the East Frankish (German) and West Frankish (French) royal families, the Ottonians and Capetians. Hathui married Duke Otto of Saxony. Their son, Henry I, had a daughter, Hedwig, named after her grandmother, who married Hugh the Great and became the mother of Henry I, Duke of Burgundy, and great-grandmother of King Henry I of France.
The House of Babenberg, which governed the March of Austria from 976 until 1246, is generally regarded as descending from the Popponids, possibly through an unnamed daughter of Henry. The names of the children—Henry, Ernest, Poppo, Adalbert and Leopold—of the first known Babenberger, Margrave Leopold I, are strongly suggestive of a link with Henry.
Henry is described by Abbo Cernuus in his Bella Parisiacae urbis as a Saxon. It is more likely he was a Thuringian.
Reign of Louis the Younger
Henry is described by the Annals of Fulda as the 'leader of the army' (princeps militiae) of Louis the Younger when the latter rebelled against his father, King Louis the German, in 866. Louis was joined in his revolt by his younger brother, Charles the Fat. The brothers may have been upset by the grant of Bavaria to their older brother, Carloman, as a sub-kingdom in 864. During the short revolt, Louis sent Henry on a mission to Duke Rastislav of Moravia. The rebellion was soon patched up, however, and Louis received Saxony as a sub-kingdom, while Charles got Alemannia.
In 871, a Saxon vassal of Henry's was blinded on the orders of Louis the German, which prompted Louis the Younger and Charles to temporarily cut off relations with their father in solidarity with Henry. Nothing is known of Henry's reaction to this incident. It has been suggested that Louis the German took advantage of his sons' insubordination to remove Henry from power in Saxony and replace him with Duke Bruno (brother of the aforementioned Otto, who probably married Henry's daughter).
In 876, Louis the German died and his sons became kings in full in their respective sub-kingdoms. Henry remained in the service of Louis the Younger. In 880, he was sent with Count Adalhard of Metz to make war on Count Theobald of Arles, the chief commander of the army of Hugh of Lotharingia, Louis's second cousin who had been excluded from the succession. According to the Annals of Fulda, Henry won a 'bloody victory'. The victorious army then joined the rest of Louis the Younger's forces and marched on Mâcon, which they took from the rebel leader Boso, who had made himself king in Burgundy and Provence in opposition to the Carolingians.
Reign of Charles the Fat
Louis the Younger died in January 882 and was succeeded by Charles the Fat, who thus reunited the East Frankish kingdom of Louis the German. Under Charles, Henry's career is a succession of battles with Viking raiders. Charles almost immediately sent Henry with an army to besiege Asselt, where an army of Vikings was encamped. According to the Annals of Fulda, Henry and Charles's nephew Arnulf led the advance guard, with Henry in charge of the Frankish contingent and Arnulf leading the Bavarian troops. Charles arrived with the main force in May 882.
Having received oaths from the Viking leaders, the siege of Asselt was considered a success and the Frankish army withdrew. After his Christmas court in 882, the king sent Henry against some Vikings who had raided Deventer. According to the Annals of Fulda, Henry 'settled matters as well as he could, and returned.' In late 883, Henry marched against the Vikings again, inflicting severe losses on them. According to the Annals of Fulda, 'it is said that not one escaped'. Henry, however, was wounded in the fighting.
In 884, Henry won two more victories over the Vikings, slaughtering them 'wherever they wanted to go to plunder', according to the annalist of Fulda. Some Vikings who had been harrying West Francia then overwintered in the Hesbaye in 884–85. In early 885, Henry and Archbishop Liutbert of Mainz surprised them in their camp. The survivors fled by night, leaving their plunder behind. Henry and Liutbert are the most prominent men (after the Carolingian kings) in the latter part of the Mainz recension of the Annals of Fulda. This is probably because its author was a partisan of Louis the Younger, as Henry and Liutbert had been Louis's chief advisors.
In 885, Godfrid, one of the Viking leaders at Asselt who had sworn oaths to Charles, taken baptism and received Frisia, was accused of plotting with the king's cousin Hugh to seize Lotharingia. Henry tricked him into a meeting and killed him with his followers. According to the Annals of Saint-Vaast, one of Godfrid's followers, Gerolf, defected and plotted Godfrid's downfall with Henry. Henry then captured Hugh at Gondreville and handed him over to the emperor, who had him blinded and imprisoned in the monastery of Saint Gall.
In 885, a large Viking force laid siege to Paris. The defence of the city fell to Bishop Joscelin and Count Odo. According to the Annals of Saint-Vaast, after the Vikings destroyed one of Paris's towers, Joscelin sent Count Herkenger of Melun to East Francia with specific instructions to ask Henry to come with an army.
As a result, in 886 Henry led the first army to relieve the siege. it was in the field from 9 February until 1 May, but its only actions were skirmishes with Vikings who occasionally strayed too far from their fortifications. By July, Charles himself was leading a huge army towards Paris. Henry was again sent off with an advance guard while the emperor was still at Metz. It was during this expedition that Henry's horse fell into a trap near Quierzy and he was cut off from his men and killed on 28 August. The same basic account of Henry's death is found in the Annals of Saint-Vaast, the chronicle of Regino of Prüm and the Annals of Fulda.
Death, burial and epitaph
The deaths of Hugh and Henry in August placed Count Odo in a preeminent position in West Francia. While writers looking back tended to see him as succeeding his brother Robert the Strong directly, he did not in fact do so. Rather, the sudden deaths of the Hugh and Henry followed by that of the Emperor Charles less than two years later left a vacuum in the West that Odo was able to take advantage of to have himself elected king in 888.
The Annals of Fulda appear to assign blame for Henry's death when recording that he was 'abandoned by his men'. Regino records that Henry was buried in the Abbey of Saint-Médard de Soissons. An eight-distich epitaph for Henry was added by an eleventh-century hand to a copy of Regino's chronicle. A marginal note[b] beside Regino's account of Henry's death directs the reader to the epitaph, which appears at the end of the manuscript.[c]
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By 871, according to the Annals of Fulda, Henry was a count (Latin comes), a title the annalist prefers for him until the end of his life, even after he had attained higher rank. By contrast, Regino of Prüm, usually calls Henry a duke (dux), a title implying military command and the control of territory much larger than a county. Under the year 885, the Annals of Saint Vaast call Henry the Duke of the Austrasians (dux Austrasiorum).
The Annals of Fulda describe Henry in 886 as 'the margrave of the Franks, who held Neustria at that time' (marchensis Francorum, qui in id tempus Niustriam tenuit). This has been interpreted as 'a generalised military responsibility which included Neustria'.Karl Ferdinand Werner goes further, saying that 'in all the Frankish kingdoms properly so-called,' that is, in Austrasia, Neustria and Franconia,[d] 'Charles gave all powers to his commander-in-chief Henry.'
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On the other hand, Donald Jackman sees Henry's final command as restricted to Neustria proper, where he succeeded Hugh the Abbot after the latter's death on 12 May 886. According to Henry's epitaph, he was 'triarch' (triarchos) of the Saxons, Franks and Frisians, which may mean that he ruled over them simultaneously or in succession. Rule over Frisia may have indicated in fact a march in western Saxony bordering Frisia. Jackman favours three successive marcher commands for Duke Henry, while Matthias Becher suggests that triarchos is a corruption of trimarchio (three-times margrave) under the influence of demarchus (people-ruler) and indicates that Henry acquired multiple marches simultaneously. There is no question that Henry in the reign of Charles the Fat was second only to the king in power.
- ^German Heinrich; in the Latin of the Annals of Fulda his name is spelled Heimrih, Heimrich, Heimricus or Heimrichus, in the Annals of Saint Vaast, it is Heinricus.
- ^cuius epitaphium in fine huius libri invenies ad hoc signum ⳩: 'whose epitaph you will find at the end of the book beside this sign ⳩'.
- ^Heinrici magni Francorum germinis alti
- hic recubat corpus: sit sibi vera salus.
- prefuit, hinc trino stemmate fretus ovet.
- pendula forte prius: idque repende, Deus.
- insigni palma hoc, pie Christe, nota.
- huic pro te strato, rex, bona redde polo.
- vir quoque traiectus: esto corona Deus.
- te tetigit virgo: laus in utroque Deo.
- plange viri casum, quin magis immo virum.
- ^The ethnically Frankish lands east of the Rhine.
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- ^ abDonald C. Jackman, Ius Hereditarium Encountered III: Ezzo's Chess Match (Editions Enlaplage, 2008), pp. 9–12.
- ^Hugh Chisholm (ed.), 'Babenberg', Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1911), vol. III, p. 91.
- ^ abcJackman, Ius Hereditarium, pp. 20–21.
- ^Timothy Reuter (ed.), The Annals of Fulda, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II (Manchester University Press, 1992), p. 55, n. 4.
- ^Jackman, Ius Hereditarium, pp. 16–17.
- ^Bernard S. Bachrach and David S. Bachrach (eds.); Widukind of Corvey, Deeds of the Saxons (Catholic University of America Press, 2014), p. 32, n. 143.
- ^ abcPierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993). pp. 228–29.
- ^ abKarl Ferdinand Werner, 'Les Robertiens', in M. Parisse and X. Barral i Altet (eds.), Le Roi de France et son royaume autour de l'an mil (Paris: 1992), pp. 15–26, at 20–21: 'dans tous les royaumes proprement francs, Charles avait donné tous les pouvoirs à son général en chef Henri'.
- ^See Jackman, Ius Hereditarium, p. 34, for a hypothetical family tree.
- ^Simon MacLean, Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 61 and n. 72.
- ^Reuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 55.
- ^ abReuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 65.
- ^ abcMacLean, Kingship and Politics, p. 214.
- ^Timothy Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages, c. 800–1056 (Routledge, 2013), p. 85.
- ^ abJackman, Ius Hereditarium, pp. 23–24.
- ^Reuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 89.
- ^MacLean, Kingship and Politics, p. 34–35.
- ^MacLean, Kingship and Politics, p. 97.
- ^Reuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 106 and n. 14.
- ^Reuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 107 and n. 9.
- ^MacLean, Kingship and Politics, p. 38–39.
- ^Reuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 11.
- ^ abcBernhard von Simson (ed.), Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi (Hanover, 1909), s.a. 885.
- ^MacLean, Kingship and Politics, p. 150.
- ^ abReuter, Annals of Fulda, pp. 100–01 and nn. 1 and 4.
- ^ abMacLean, Kingship and Politics, p. 66 and n. 95.
- ^Wolf-Rüdiger Schleidgen, Die Überlieferungsgeschichte der Chronik des Regino von Prüm (Selbstverlag der Gesellschaft für Mittelrheinische Kirchengeschichte, 1977), p. 22.
- ^Friedrich Kurze (ed.), Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis Chronicon cum continuatione Treverensi, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi (Hanover, 1890), p. 126.
- ^Reuter, Annals of Fulda, p. 112.
- ^Matthias Becher, Rex, Dux und Gens: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung des sächischen Herzogtums im 9. und 10. Jahrhundert (Matthiesen Verlag, 1996), p. 165.
- Guillotel, Hubert (2000). 'Une autre marche de Neustrie'. In Settipani, Christian; Keats-Rohan, Katharine S. B. (eds.). Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval. Oxford: Unit for Prosopographical Research, Linacre College. ISBN1-900934-01-9.
- Keats-Rohan, Katharine S. B. (2000). 'Poppa de Bayeux et sa famille'. In Settipani, Christian; Keats-Rohan, Katharine S. B. (eds.). Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval. Oxford: Unit for Prosopographical Research, Linacre College. ISBN1-900934-01-9.